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lowest cost of study on optimal conditions of poly ferric chloride

  • Study on optimal conditions of poly ferric chloride

    2021-1-1 · In this study, compare the treatment efficiency and economic value of new generation PFC flocculants and PAC flocculants with optimal conditions. 3. Results and discussion3.1. Identify optimum pH. In quick test to determine the pH showed PFC seems to fit the pH range from 9 to 10, with pH below 9, coagulation process can not occur.

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  • Comparison of poly ferric chloride and poly titanium ...

    2021-1-28 · According to the results of the study, the optimal coagulant PTC and PFC dosage was 600 and 800 mg/L, respectively. Therefore, the costs of the coagulation-flocculation process for treatment of 1 m 3 of paper and cardboard wastewater using PTC and PFC were estimated to …

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  • Optimization of coagulation with ferric chloride as a ...

    2017-8-1 · The coagulation with FeCl 3 at optimal conditions highly improved the water quality reducing carbon content to less than half of the initial value (56.1% TC and 66.4% DOC removal) and turbidity by 80.1%, but slightly increasing the conductivity (10.2%), which was expected as a consequence of pH adjustment and addition of coagulant.

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  • Appraisal and ranking of poly-aluminium chloride,

    2020-8-1 · This is supported by the current study, as FeCl 3 had the lowest pH among all the coagulants (Fig. 2-a), which corresponds with the highest removal efficiency of E. coli (Fig. 2-b). There was a significant linear relationship between decreasing pH and logarithmic removal of E. coli (P < 0.0001); however, it varied with the type of coagulant ( Fig. 2 -b).

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  • Production of Industrial Coagulant (Poly Aluminium ...

    2019-7-5 · obtained from the literature. Reports show that Ferric chloride, alum and aluminium chloride has optimum mixing speed of 120, 140 and 140rpm at pH 4, 4 and 6 at 35℃. . Flocculation of latex effluent was carried conditions. Results and Discussion Preparation of poly aluminium chloride (PAC) From 20 cans, 190 g of aluminium powder was

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  • Preparation and coagulation performance of poly

    2011-3-1 · This study aims to investigate the preparation, characterization and coagulation performance of poly-ferric-aluminum-silicate-sulfate (PFASS) with different silicon quantity from fly ash. After the structure and morphology analysis of the samples were carried out by infrared spectra (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) microphotographs.

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  • Corrosion inhibition of copper in ferric chloride ...

    2020-11-18 · N 1 s peaks appeared at Eb = ~399, 400.2, 402.75, and ~407.5 eV (Supplementary Fig. 2 (b2) ). The 1st peak can be related to Cu–N–C bonding, as in Cu 1.9 C 77.7 N 19.3 ( Eb …

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  • Characterization and coagulation–flocculation

    2011-12-15 · To overcome this problem, a relatively new type of coagulants commonly known as inorganic polymer coagulants/flocculants (IPCs/IPFs) such as poly-ferric chloride (PFC), poly-ferric sulfate (PFS) have been developed worldwide since the 1960s . They are applied in the treatment of both municipal and industrial wastewater , , . The iron-based coagulants are synthesized by oxidation of ferrous sulfate to ferric sulfate, and then carrying out a controlled partial hydrolysis of ferric …

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  • Optimization of coagulation with ferric chloride as a ...

    2017-8-1 · The efficiency of coagulation with ferric(III) chloride is influenced by the pH, as it determinate the form of hydrolyzed products (Yan et al., 2009) with a suggested optimal range between 4.5 and 6.0 (Yan et al., 2008, Matilainen et al., 2010).

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  • Appraisal and ranking of poly-aluminium chloride,

    2020-8-1 · The aims of this study were to (1) assess the effectiveness of three chemical coagulants – poly-aluminium chloride (PACl), ferric chloride (FeCl 3) and alum – in improving effluent quality, and (2) assess the properties of the sludge that is generated as by …

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  • Evaluation of Ferric Chloride as a Coagulant for Cork ...

    2005-7-8 · The optimal conditions found for the settling process were not the same as those that had been determined in the first part of the study for the elimination of organic matter. Finally, taking into account economic and practical reasons, the Talmadge−Fitch method is used to apply the results to the design of a clarifier−thickener unit to ...

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  • Study of Esterification Waste water Treatment by

    2018-12-12 · In this study, the Esterification wastewater was treated by three kinds of flocculants (poly aluminum chloride (PAC), polymeric ferric sulfate (PFS), poly aluminum ferric chloride (PAFC)), the influences of flocculent concentration, temperature and pH on …

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  • Fabrication and characterization of poly(ferric chloride ...

    2014-4-2 · Derived mainly from processes including bleaching, rinsing, dyeing, printing and starching, the printing, and dyeing, wastewater was characterized by high chromaticity, large emission, complex composition, high levels of organic pollutants, and poor biodegradability [1–3].Due to the presence of toxic (hazardous) substances in dyeing wastewater and its severe contamination to the environment ...

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  • Comparison and optimization of the performance of

    2019-11-14 · The cost (last column in Table 6) is calculated based on the optimal dosage of the coagulant and the cost per kilo of each of the chemicals, for 1 m 3 of treated water. Considering that the cost of PACl is lower than other coagulants, it can be said that under these conditions, the use of natural coagulants is not economically feasible.

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  • ISSN: 0975-766X CODEN: IJPTFI Available Online through ...

    2016-7-24 · The results showed that after using the poly aluminum chloride, ferrous sulfate, ferric chloride and aluminum sulfate coagulants, in the turbidity of 200, 100, 50, 20, 10 NTU, the pH level have reduced in a way that by increasing each mg/l poly aluminum chloride, ferrous sulfate, ferric chloride about 0.01 unit pH have reduced.

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  • Effect of cations on the removal rate of chloride ions

    2021-3-17 · It can be seen that under this condition, the chloride ion concentration is the lowest and the chloride ion removal efficiency is the highest. Compared with the case without iron (III) ions in the solution (e.g. the optimal nNa 2 SO 3 : nNaCl was 1.1:1), more sodium sulphite was needed to achieve a higher chloride ion removal rate, which ...

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  • Optimal Solution of Transportation Problem Using

    2015-6-1 · Coagulation mechanisms with PACl were investigated by measuring the RT and ZP at various dosages at a constant final pH. Fig. 1 shows the effects of PACl dosages on the RT and ZP at different final pH values. With final pH values of 6.0, 7.0, and 8.0 [Fig. 1(a–c)] the typical four coagulation zones (i.e. stabilization, charge neutralization destabilization, restabilization and sweep) are ...

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  • Comparison and optimization of the performance of

    2019-11-14 · The cost (last column in Table 6) is calculated based on the optimal dosage of the coagulant and the cost per kilo of each of the chemicals, for 1 m 3 of treated water. Considering that the cost of PACl is lower than other coagulants, it can be said that under these conditions, the use of natural coagulants is not economically feasible.

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  • Abstract - CORE

    2018-4-16 · of poly aluminum chloride coagulant is higher than other coagulants . Data from this study also showed current cost of coagulant for coagulation in the water industry and the amount of water needed to purify the consumption of poly-aluminum chloride, it is higher than other coagulants.

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  • Studying the Characteristics of Polypyrrole and its

    2019-8-2 · for 5 hours. The optimal conditions for PPy and its composites preparation are summarized in Table 1. In a typical experiment 1 mL of pyrrole monomer was added to stirred aqueous or non-aqueous solutions 100 mL containing 4.8 g of ferric chloride and 0.6 …

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  • Evaluation of Ferric Chloride as a Coagulant for Cork ...

    2005-7-8 · The optimal conditions found for the settling process were not the same as those that had been determined in the first part of the study for the elimination of organic matter. Finally, taking into account economic and practical reasons, the Talmadge−Fitch method is used to apply the results to the design of a clarifier−thickener unit to ...

    Get Price
  • Optimizing Chemically Enhanced Primary Treatment

    2019-3-16 · The optimal coagulant (15 mg/L ferric chloride) and flocculant (0.5 mg/L poly aluminum chloride (PACl)) combination achieved total COD, soluble COD, total suspended solids (TSS), and total phosphorus (TP) removal efficiencies of 76, 58, 89, and 84, respectively, in a full-scale

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  • Comparing Aluminium Sulfate and Poly-Aluminium

    2021-7-13 · removal efficiency in water treatment plants of Iran. In this study, the effectiveness of aluminium sulfate and poly-aluminum chloride was evaluated at different pH values and coagulant dosage in order to find optimal operational conditions for low to high turbidity waters. The influence of lime, as a coagulant aid, on coagulation

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  • Effect of cations on the removal rate of chloride ions

    2021-3-17 · It can be seen that under this condition, the chloride ion concentration is the lowest and the chloride ion removal efficiency is the highest. Compared with the case without iron (III) ions in the solution (e.g. the optimal nNa 2 SO 3 : nNaCl was 1.1:1), more sodium sulphite was needed to achieve a higher chloride ion removal rate, which ...

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  • Ahmed Yousif - Academia.edu

    The aims of this study were to (1) assess the effectiveness of three chemical coagulants-poly-aluminium chloride (PACl), ferric chloride (FeCl 3) and alum-in improving effluent quality, and (2) assess the properties of the sludge that is generated as by-product from the process for …

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  • (PDF) Chemical Coagulation Efficiency in Removal of

    In badlands study (2007) that poly poly-electrolytes and nonionic polymers. Most aluminum chloride, ferric chloride, aluminum sulfate common coagulant material to remove water compared in coagulation condition in water turbidity turbidity from mineral and synthetic types includes removal. The results showed more efficient removal iron salts and ...

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  • Expert System Design for Sewage Treatment Plant

    2018-9-25 · 4 Expert System Design for Sewage Treatment Plant J. Bouza-Fernandez 1, G. Gonzalez-Filgueira 1, S. de las Heras Jimenez 2 and D.Vazquez-Gonzalez 1 1University of A Coruña, Ferrol, 2Politechnical University of Catalunya, Terrassa, Spain 1. Introduction Nowadays the field of centralized control is linked to major production processes or

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  • Studying the Characteristics of Polypyrrole and its

    2019-8-2 · for 5 hours. The optimal conditions for PPy and its composites preparation are summarized in Table 1. In a typical experiment 1 mL of pyrrole monomer was added to stirred aqueous or non-aqueous solutions 100 mL containing 4.8 g of ferric chloride and 0.6 …

    Get Price
  • Comparison and optimization of the performance of

    2019-11-14 · The cost (last column in Table 6) is calculated based on the optimal dosage of the coagulant and the cost per kilo of each of the chemicals, for 1 m 3 of treated water. Considering that the cost of PACl is lower than other coagulants, it can be said that under these conditions, the use of natural coagulants is not economically feasible.

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  • A Comparison Of Aluminum And Iron-based Coagulants

    2020-10-13 · Ferric chloride and ACH were observed to obtain the highest DOC (85% and 70%, respectively) and color (98% and 97%, respectively) removals at the lowest dose concentrations (120 mg/L and 100 mg/L, respectively). Ferric sulfate was effective at DOC removal but required a higher

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  • Abstract - CORE

    2018-4-16 · of poly aluminum chloride coagulant is higher than other coagulants . Data from this study also showed current cost of coagulant for coagulation in the water industry and the amount of water needed to purify the consumption of poly-aluminum chloride, it is higher than other coagulants.

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  • (PDF) Flocculation activity of novel ferric chloride ...

    2020-2-5 · Final Report: Small-Scale Studies on Low Intensity Chemical Dosing (LICD) for Treatment of Highway Runoff April 19, 2006 P. Bachand1, J. Trejo-Gaytan 3, J. Darby3, J. Reuter2 1Bachand & Associates; 2U.C. Davis Tahoe Environmental Research Center (TERC); 3U.C. Davis Civil and Environmental Engineering in partial fulfillment of Contract No. 43A0073 of Task Order Number 13

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  • Final Report: Small-Scale Studies on Low Intensity ...

    At G2O Technologies, we use the power of chemistry to help you deliver the highest-quality water at the lowest cost. As the leading North American provider of specialty chemicals for Potable, Industrial, and Waste Water Treatment, G2O is built on a foundation of innovative products, customer responsiveness and best-in-class technical expertise ...

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  • Optimal Solution of Transportation Problem Using

    2019-3-19 · A novel inorganic polymer flocculant, biopolymeric ferric sulfate (BPFS), was prepared by immobilization technology of microorganisms and by oxidation of ferrous sulfate using domestic Thiobacillus ferrooxidans ( T. f ) under acidic condition. T. f was isolated on the agarose single-plate medium, which exhibited an unusual trait on the utilization of low concentration of the nitrogen source ...

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  • Home | G2O Technologies

    2021-1-12 · This study investigates the optimization of the culture conditions for enhancing Photorhabdus temperata biopesticide production using wastewater (WS4) as a …

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  • Optimization and economic evaluation of modified ...

    2018-10-17 · Chemicals. Poly-aluminum chloride (Al 2 (OH) n Cl 6−n.YH 2 O, Al 2 O 3 = 30%wt, basicity = 65% and pH = 3) was used as a coagulant and anionic (A 300), cationic (C 270) and nonionic polymers, as the coagulant aids were provided from AquaTech Company, Switzerland.. Preparation of solution. In order to prepare a 10 percent clear solution for coagulant, 10 g of PAC was dissolved to 100 mL of ...

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  • Optimization of Polyaluminum Chloride-Chitosan

    The molecular structure of a material substantially determines its final application performance [7,8].Chitosan (CTS) is a natural polymer derived from renewable resources [], and it is an important polymer flocculant for water treatment as a cationic polysaccharide.Compared to traditional chemical flocculants, CTS has the following advantages: low dosage, good turbidity removal, high removal ...

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  • Final Report: Small-Scale Studies on Low Intensity ...

    2020-2-5 · Final Report: Small-Scale Studies on Low Intensity Chemical Dosing (LICD) for Treatment of Highway Runoff April 19, 2006 P. Bachand1, J. Trejo-Gaytan 3, J. Darby3, J. Reuter2 1Bachand & Associates; 2U.C. Davis Tahoe Environmental Research Center (TERC); 3U.C. Davis Civil and Environmental Engineering in partial fulfillment of Contract No. 43A0073 of Task Order Number 13

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  • Preparation and regeneration of iron-modified

    2019-9-4 · The adsorption efficiency of phosphorus on the pristine and the iron-loaded CNFs were studied at pH 4, 7 and 10. Three kinds of iron-loaded CNFs were prepared using ferric chloride, ferric sulfate and ferric nitrate. The modified CNFs had the same mass ratio of Fe(OH) 3 and CNFs of 1 : 1.

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  • Effect of coagulation and sonication on the dissolved air ...

    2020-3-18 · The study was performed in three main phases. The first phase included a jar test to determine the optimum dose of coagulant and pH. Ferric chloride (FeCl 3) was used as the coagulant in this experiment. The second phase included the determination of the optimum recycling rate in the floatation tank using air-to-solid ratio (A/S).

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  • An alternative method for preparation of

    Abstract The drawbacks, high energy consumption, rigorous preparation condition and high impurity contents, have been well-recognized in the preparation of widely-used polyaluminum chloride via conventional methods in industrial scale. In order to overcome the drawbacks, the fresh aluminum hydroxide gels were proposed to prepare the polyaluminum chloride (PACG) in this study.

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  • Microalgae Chlorella vulgaris biomass harvesting by ...

    2018-6-28 · The objectives of this study were: (1) to evaluate chitosan flocculation performance in the harvesting of C. vulgaris biomass and determine its optimal dose, (2) to disclose the sedimentation properties of C. vulgaris biomass flocculated by chitosan, (3) to reveal the recyclability of the spent medium from flocculation to regrow microalgae and ...

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  • Designing Water Treatment Systems for Optimal

    As competition has tightened, however, high-efficiency and low-cost operations have become critical for paper manufacturers. G2O teamed up with one paper mill in the southeast U.S. to identify solutions to improve the efficiency, cost and regulatory compliance associated with its influent water system.

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  • Elaboration and characterisation of novel low-cost ...

    The surface characteristics and removal efficiencies of cadmium, copper and zinc ions from aqueous solutions were affected by the activation conditions. The sulphonated lignin-based activated carbons (SLACs) with the highest specific surface area, total pore and micropore volume were produced at the lowest dehydrating salt concentration (10%w/w ...

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  • Removal of selenium from refinery wastewater - Nalco

    The ferric salt may be selected from the group consisting of ferric sulfate, ferric chloride, ferrous sulfate, ferrous chloride, and any combination thereof. The ferric salt may be added in an amount of between 1-300 ppm. The dithiocarbamate material may be between 50% to 300% of the amount (in ppm) of ferric salt added to the liquid.

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  • Optimization and economic evaluation of modified ...

    2018-10-17 · Chemicals. Poly-aluminum chloride (Al 2 (OH) n Cl 6−n.YH 2 O, Al 2 O 3 = 30%wt, basicity = 65% and pH = 3) was used as a coagulant and anionic (A 300), cationic (C 270) and nonionic polymers, as the coagulant aids were provided from AquaTech Company, Switzerland.. Preparation of solution. In order to prepare a 10 percent clear solution for coagulant, 10 g of PAC was dissolved to 100 mL of ...

    Get Price
  • Fabrication and characterization of poly(ferric chloride ...

    2014-4-2 · The lowest residual color in the supernatant was at pH around 6, corresponding to the maximum removal of reactive blue at Conclusion 96.4 %. ... This study showed and polyferric chloride-polyamine composite coagulant for syn- conclusively evidence for a synergistic effect thetic dying wastewater treatment. J Hazard Mater 187:413–420 16 ...

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  • Effect of coagulation and sonication on the dissolved air ...

    2020-3-18 · The study was performed in three main phases. The first phase included a jar test to determine the optimum dose of coagulant and pH. Ferric chloride (FeCl 3) was used as the coagulant in this experiment. The second phase included the determination of the optimum recycling rate in the floatation tank using air-to-solid ratio (A/S).

    Get Price
  • An alternative method for preparation of

    Abstract The drawbacks, high energy consumption, rigorous preparation condition and high impurity contents, have been well-recognized in the preparation of widely-used polyaluminum chloride via conventional methods in industrial scale. In order to overcome the drawbacks, the fresh aluminum hydroxide gels were proposed to prepare the polyaluminum chloride (PACG) in this study.

    Get Price
  • Multiple response optimization of the coagulation

    2016-5-18 · The results of F = 18.175 > F 0.05,1,15 = 4.543 and R 2 = 0.90 for the PO 4 3−-P removal efficiency illustrated that the second-order polynomial model fitted the experimental results well.

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  • Saving Taxpayer Dollars, One Gallon at a Time | G2O ...

    G2O’s customer saved 10 for every million gallons processed, totaling 100 per day, or 37,000 per year. As more plant conversions go online, annual savings for infrastructure around the world will be substantial. Other improvements. Less frequency in cleaning water tubes. Longer life span for equipment.

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  • Study on the preparation of granular alum sludge

    2019-6-15 · When the adsorbent dosage reached 20 g/L, the effluent phosphorus concentration of the actual tail water decreased to 0.49 mg/L, the removal rate reached 73.5%, and the COD removal rate was 35%. The findings of this study are important for the further development of low-cost adsorbent materials for P removal in the future.

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  • Selection of potent bacterial strain for over

    In present study, same attempt was opted to screen optimal PHB producing strain. From the results it is clearly evident that Bacillus Spp. was best for PHB accumulation. Bacillus spp. yielded 34.4 mg/g of PHA as compared to 4.50 mg/g by P. fluorescens and 7.02 mg/g by P. putida under optimal fermentation conditions

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  • Improved production of melanin from Aspergillus

    2015-11-24 · Melanins are indolic polymers produced by many genera included among plants, animals and microorganisms and targeted mainly for their wide range of applications in cosmetics, agriculture and medicine. An approach to analyse the cumulative effect of parameters for enhanced melanin production was carried out using response surface methodology. In this present study, optimization of media and ...

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  • Indicator-Free Argentometric Titration for Distance

    2021-2-26 · Chloride solution (100 mg L –1) was used to study the effect of volume of chloride solution on the length of the white-colored band by keeping the volume and concentration of silver nitrate constant at 7.5 μL and 0.1 mol L –1, respectively. Figure 4 shows that the length of the white-colored band increased with volume in a range of 15–45 ...

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  • Effect of solution pH on the performance of three ...

    The r esult sho w optimal conditions of compound of pol yaluminium chloride and bentonite f or removal of orthophosphate, COD, BOD and TSS in pH = 7 and optimal dose 15.55 mg/L polyaluminium chloride and 5.55 mg/L bentonite in influent wastewater to primary clarifier has been obtained 71.83, 46.1, 48.9 and 63.5 %, respecti vely.

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  • Removal of Orthophosphate from Municipal Wastewater

    2016-5-18 · The results of F = 18.175 > F 0.05,1,15 = 4.543 and R 2 = 0.90 for the PO 4 3−-P removal efficiency illustrated that the second-order polynomial model fitted the experimental results well.

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  • Multiple response optimization of the coagulation

    In present study, same attempt was opted to screen optimal PHB producing strain. From the results it is clearly evident that Bacillus Spp. was best for PHB accumulation. Bacillus spp. yielded 34.4 mg/g of PHA as compared to 4.50 mg/g by P. fluorescens and 7.02 mg/g by P. putida under optimal fermentation conditions

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  • Selection of potent bacterial strain for over

    2020-11-16 · Microbial fouling is a costly issue, which impacts a wide range of industries, such as healthcare, food processing, and construction industries, and improved strategies to reduce the impact of fouling are urgently required. Slippery liquid-infused porous surfaces (SLIPSs) have recently been developed as a bioinspired approach to prevent antifouling. Here, we report the development of …

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  • Phosphonium Ionic Liquid-Infused Poly(vinyl chloride ...

    2016-3-8 · For the last few years, researchers have been interested in developing a method for chemical sterilization which may be a better alternative to surgical castration. An ideal chemical sterilant would be one that effectively arrests spermatogenesis and androgenesis as well as libido with absence of toxic or other side effects. Calcium chloride in various solutions and concentrations has been ...

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  • Evaluation of chemical castration with calcium

    2021-2-26 · Chloride solution (100 mg L –1) was used to study the effect of volume of chloride solution on the length of the white-colored band by keeping the volume and concentration of silver nitrate constant at 7.5 μL and 0.1 mol L –1, respectively. Figure 4 shows that the length of the white-colored band increased with volume in a range of 15–45 ...

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  • Indicator-Free Argentometric Titration for Distance

    2020-10-14 · The optimal rice husk-based powder was RH-SCB, which presented the highest net sludge solid yield (YN, expresses the dry mass flow by filtration) at 20.39 kg/(m2 h) for 70% dry sludge (DS).

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