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types of structure conductivity correlation in ferric chloride in china

  • Structure conductivity correlation in ferric chloride ...

    Structure–conductivity correlation in ferric chloride-doped poly(3-hexylthiophene) Rajiv K Singh1, Jitendra Kumar1, Ramadhar Singh1,3, Rama Kant2, R C Rastogi2, Suresh Chand1 and Vikram Kumar1 1 National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012, India 2 Department of Chemistry, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007, India

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  • Structure–conductivity correlation in ferric chloride ...

    2006-7-5 · where σ B is conductivity due to intra-chain transport of charge carriers which can be described by the band conduction mechanism and is usually observed at high temperatures. σ H is the contribution to the total conductivity (σ dc) due to inter-chain transport of charge carriers, i.e. hopping of charge carriers between the polymer chains and is observed at intermediate temperature or below room temperature. σ T is the conductivity …

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  • The effect of ferric ions on the conductivity of various ...

    2007-4-17 · The mixed H + /Fe 3+-forms had the conductivity about two to three times lower than that for the corresponding H +-forms. 3. Ferric ions have the least influence on the conductivity of the Nafion 115 under direct current at ∼pH 1.0, compared to the rest of the membranes studied. 4.

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  • Optimization of coagulation with ferric chloride as a ...

    2017-8-1 · Thus, the optimization of coagulation with ferric(III) chloride (FeCl 3) as a pretreatment for nanofiltration was performed to reduce membrane fouling and achieve higher permeate quality. Coagulation was modeled (total carbon, inorganic carbon, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), turbidity, conductivity, and resulting pH) and optimized with response surface methodology (RSM) to remove …

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  • Improvement of structure and electrical conductivity

    2020-11-7 · In order to improve the electrical conductivity, sensitization with nitromethane ferric chloride (FeCl3) solutions was proposed in References [13–15]. Being a cheap chemical oxidation agent, FeCl3 is able to di use through polymer chains, acting like a p-type material. The physical properties of

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  • On the Electrical and Optical Properties Stability of P3HT ...

    2020-4-3 · As the microwave irradiation continues, the solution temperature becomes higher. After the microwave was turned off, the temperature gradually decreased. On heating the ferric chloride solution, it has been validated that fine particles were formed quickly , and provide a surface for heterogeneous nucleation of bubbles. At the peak of microwave heating, the maximum size was observed before …

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  • Surface Tension of Aqueous Ferric Chloride Solution

    2021-1-1 · Doping of ferric chloride in poly ... can be channelized along with electronic transport to use such polymeric films in the devices that require both types of transport. ... Structure–conductivity correlation in ferric chloride-doped poly(3-hexylthiophene) New J. Phys., 8 (2006), p. 112.

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  • Anionic conduction mediated giant n-type Seebeck ...

    2018-3-26 · The study site, having an elevation of 444 m, has a scarp as the trailing edge of the landslide.We removed the weathered soil from the surface of this scarp and excavated a trench along the scarp ().The length, vertical height and cross-sectional area of the trench were 27.1 m, 22 m and 1 m × 1 m, respectively.Twenty two sampling points were set at an interval of 1 m and 22 groups of loess ...

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  • Spatial variation of saturated hydraulic conductivity of

    2011-6-7 · Aluminium chlorohydrate is a group of salts having the general formula AlnCl (3n-m) (OH)m. It is used in deodorants and antiperspirants and as a flocculant in water purification. Other names for pac are basic aluminium chloride, polybasic aluminium chloride, aluminium hydroxide, and aluminium oxychloride and aluminium chlorohydrate.

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  • Mechanism of dc conduction in ferric chloride doped

    2003-4-1 · Poly(3-methyl thiophene) has been synthesized by chemical oxidation method in an inert atmosphere using ferric chloride as a dopant. The doping level varies from 0.1 to 2.0 M. The dc conductivity has been measured in the temperature range 20–300 K. The observed dc conductivity data has been analyzed in the light of existing theoretical models.

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  • Raman study of the structure of ferric chloride in

    1975-12-1 · Raman study of the structure of ferric chloride in frozen aqueous solutions 2419 The polarized bands observed at 376 and 433 cm I in the spectrum of 3.77M FCHH-3M HCI solution (Table 1) are characteristics of Fe-OH: stretching modes of higher and lower chloro-ferrate complexes of the types FeC152 .H20 and Fe(H20)4CI2+, respectively.

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  • Electroactive Composite of FeCl 3 -Doped P3HT/PLGA

    Affiliations 1 Key Laboratory of Polymer Ecomaterials, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, 130022, P. R. China.; 2 School of Chemical Engineering & Advanced Institute of Materials Science, Changchun University of Technology, Changchun, 130012, P. R. China.; 3 Institute of Applied Chemistry and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of ...

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  • Structure and conductivity of the corn root system

    2021-7-9 · Structure and Conductivity of the Corn Root System MiRIA Lvxovi and V. KOZlNKA Institute of Botany, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava* ... conductivity in the individual root types is influenced by the ratio of the participation of water- ... of ferric chloride, …

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  • Electrochemical synthesis and characterization of

    1998-1-1 · However, the GIC with a stage 3 structure synthesized in SM FeCl3 + IM HC1 (curve d) started to lose weight at lower temperature of 60°C, and decomposition was observed at the begin- ning. It was reported that the ferric chloride GICs synthesized in high concentration of HC1 might be decomposed below 100°C [9].

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  • Improvement of structure and electrical conductivity

    Improvement of structure and electrical conductivity of activated carbon by catalytic graphitization using N 2 plasma pretreatment and iron(III) loading. Shukai Shi, Xiaoyan Zhou *, Weimin Chen, Minzhi Chen *, Thiphuong Nguyen, Xin Wang and Wei Zhang College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing Forestry University, No. 159 Longpan Road, Nanjing 210037, China.

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  • The effect of ferric ions on the conductivity of various ...

    2007-4-17 · The results dealing with the influence of Fe 3+ ions on the Nafion membranes conductivity (Tables 2 and 3) are in good agreement with the data obtained by Okada et al. [].In particular, the conductivity of Fe 3+-form of Nafion 115 membrane was found to be 5.6·10 −3 Ω −1 cm −1 as compared to 6.7·10 −3 Ω −1 cm −1 at 25 °C [].Using a dependence of conductivity on the ionic ...

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  • Surface Tension of Aqueous Ferric Chloride Solution

    2020-4-3 · Recently, it has been found that surface tension of a colloid solution maintained lower value by microwave irradiation even after the microwave was turned off. The results verified bubbles around particles due to microwave. In this study, the surface tension and particle-bubble were monitored during and after the irradiation for suspension from an aqueous solution of ferric chloride.

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  • Determination of arsenic(V) and arsenic(III) in ferric ...

    2019-5-26 · Simultaneous determination of arsenic(III) and arsenic(V) in metallurgical processing media by ion chromatography with electrochemical and conductivity detectors. Analytical Chemistry 1986 , …

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  • Spatial variation of saturated hydraulic conductivity of

    2018-3-26 · The study site, having an elevation of 444 m, has a scarp as the trailing edge of the landslide.We removed the weathered soil from the surface of this scarp and excavated a trench along the scarp ().The length, vertical height and cross-sectional area of the trench were 27.1 m, 22 m and 1 m × 1 m, respectively.Twenty two sampling points were set at an interval of 1 m and 22 groups of loess ...

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  • Improvement of structure and electrical conductivity of ...

    Improvement of structure and electrical conductivity of activated carbon by catalytic graphitization using N2 plasma pretreatment and iron(III) ... into ferric chloride solution for the next heating step. The ... China) was screened into a particle size of less than 100 mesh,

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  • Ferric chloride | FeCl3 - PubChem

    2015-8-26 · 25% by weight) ferric chloride. The parameters such as tensile strength, tensile modulus, hardness and impact test were carried out on the prepared samples. It was found that the addition ferric chloride to the polymer leads to increase the tensile strength, modulus of elasticity, hardness and impact strength. The water absorption

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  • Ferric Chloride (FeCl3) - Formula, Test, Colour, Uses ...

    2021-1-1 · Doping of ferric chloride in poly ... can be channelized along with electronic transport to use such polymeric films in the devices that require both types of transport. ... Structure–conductivity correlation in ferric chloride-doped poly(3-hexylthiophene) New J. Phys., 8 (2006), p. 112.

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  • Water Absorption and Mechanical Properties of High

    2011-11-15 · The impact of pH on floc structure characteristic of polyferric chloride in a low DOC and high alkalinity surface water treatment. Cao B(1), Gao B, Liu X, Wang M, Yang Z, Yue Q. Author information: (1)School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, No. 27 Shanda Nan Road, Jinan 250100, PR China. [email protected]

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  • Anionic conduction mediated giant n-type Seebeck ...

    2020-11-7 · Coatings 2020, 10, 1074 2 of 8 In order to improve the electrical conductivity, sensitization with nitromethane ferric chloride (FeCl3) solutions was proposed in References [13–15].Being a cheap chemical oxidation agent, FeCl3 is able to di use through polymer chains, acting like a p-type material.

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  • The impact of pH on floc structure characteristic of ...

    2021-7-8 · The structural integrity and large-sized flakes of graphene are synthesized through anhydrous ferric chloride (FeCl 3)-intercalated natural graphite flakes. The introduction of graphene into Ti 3 C 2 T x improves the specific capacitance, mainly due to the improvement of specific surface area rather than the interlayer spacing.

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  • On the Electrical and Optical Properties Stability of P3HT ...

    2017-2-6 · Specific conductivity is an increasingly important stressor for freshwater ecosystems. Interacting with other environmental factors, it may lead to habitat degradation and biodiversity loss. However, it is still poorly understood how the effect of specific conductivity on freshwater organisms is confounded by other environmental factors. In this study, a weight-of-evidence method was applied ...

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  • Small Structures: Early View - Wiley

    2012-9-1 · Highlights Development, characterization and application of hybrid materials are reviewed. Hybrid materials are composed of two or more components in one matrix. Hybrid materials pose unique properties compared to original components. The properties of hybrid materials change with the component and composition. Hybrid materials perform better compared to conventional coagulant and …

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  • Ferric Chloride Solution - labchem.com

    2017-1-17 · Ferric Chloride Solution Bioaccumulative potential Not established. Ferric Chloride, Hexahydrate (10025 -77 -1) BCF fish 1 <= 100 (BCF) Bioaccumulative potential No bioaccumulation data available. Water (7732 -18 -5) Bioaccumulative potential Not established. 12.4. Mobility in soil No additional information available 12.5. Other adverse effects

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  • Ferric sulfate | Fe2(SO4)3 - PubChem

    2013-9-2 · PΑFSiC and PΑCFSi (pFSi + Al): Ferric chloride solution was added in an appropriate volume of pSi solution, under vigorous stirring. The concentration and volume of the ferric chloride and the pSi varied in order to achieve the desired ratio of Fe/Si for each reagent [10]. Then, the formed pFSi was used to prepare two types of coagulants.

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  • Synthesis and coagulation performance of composite po

    2019-5-25 · Biochemistry All Publications/Website. OR SEARCH CITATIONS

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  • Interactions between the quaternary structure of the ...

    In this research article, wood based microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) was studied to gain a better understanding of the process of dependent network formation. Networking potentia

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  • Processing-Structure-Property Correlation

    2018-2-14 · Conductive polymer, polypyrrole (PPy), was synthesized by chemical oxidative polymerization technique for a period of four hours at room temperature using pyrrole monomer (mPPy) in aqueous solution. Different oxidants such as ferric chloride (FeCl 3 ) and ammonium persulphate (N 2 H 8 S 2 O 8 ) and surfactant sodium dodecyl sulphate …

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  • Synthesis and Characterization of Conductive

    2021-7-8 · The structural integrity and large-sized flakes of graphene are synthesized through anhydrous ferric chloride (FeCl 3)-intercalated natural graphite flakes. The introduction of graphene into Ti 3 C 2 T x improves the specific capacitance, mainly due to the improvement of specific surface area rather than the interlayer spacing.

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  • Small Structures: Early View - Wiley

    2021-4-30 · The Anhydrous Ferric Chloride Market 2021-2027 research report analyzes the current as well as future aspects of the industry & presents leading regions, growth trends & strategies of the key players which is bound to impact the global Anhydrous Ferric Chloride industry share in various end-use applications.. Have a Need Deep Analysis, Request Sample Report Here: https://www ...

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  • Anhydrous Ferric Chloride Market 2021 Trends and

    2019-12-12 · It was shown recently that a simple dielectric continuum model predicts the integral solvation time of a dipolar solute τsolv to be inversely proportional to the electrical conductivity σ0 of an ionic solvent or solution. In this Letter, we provide a more general derivation of this connection and show that available data on coumarin 153 (C153) in ionic liquids generally support this ...

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  • Electrical conductivity of minerals and rocks

    2020-1-7 · electrical conductivity in typical minerals is usually due to some “impurities” such as ferric iron and hydrogen (Fig. 2). The electrical conductivity in iron-bearing minerals can still be “intrinsic”, i.e., conductivity could occur by the formation of a pair of electrons and holes through reaction (5).

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  • TITRIMETRIC ANALYSIS OF CHLORIDE

    2009-5-12 · 2. The ferric ion, Fe3+ (the Volhard method); 3. Adsorption indicators such as fluorescein (the Fajans method). In this experiment, we will be using dichlorofluorescein, a Fajans (adsorption) indicator, to detect the endpoint chemically; however, it is useful to briefly describe all three methods of endpoint detection. Titrimetric Analysis ...

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  • Atomistic insight into lithospheric conductivity

    2021-6-3 · The delocalization of e − and H + and consequent hopping within the amphibole structure results in an increase in mineral conductivity 14,16, a feature …

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  • What Is Electrical Conductivity? - Know Conductivity

    INTRODUCTION. Distributions of electrical conductivity in cells depend on the concentrations and mobilities of critical charged species (), such as proteins, nucleic acids, sodium, potassium, and calcium.Many diseases cause imbalances in the cellular distributions of these ions and thus changes in local conductivities (); examples include allergic diseases (), cancer (4, 5), diabetes mellitus ...

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  • Noninvasive visualization of electrical conductivity in ...

    2014-4-14 · Types and Causes of Concrete Deterioration Fig. 4. Deicing salts are a major cause of corrosion of reinforcing steel in concrete. (55807) Table 2. Maximum Chloride Ion Content of Concrete (ACI 318) Maximum Type of Member Cl-* Prestressed concrete 0.06 Reinforced concrete exposed to chloride in service 0.15 Reinforced concrete that will be dry

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  • Types and Causes of Concrete Deterioration

    Abstract Recent measurements of room temperature electrical conductivity in AsF5-graphite intercalation compounds have emphasized the need for a re-evaluation of conventional techniques when applied to quasi-two-dimensional materials. We have thoroughly investigated the validity of the classic 4-point bridge measurement under conditions of high anisotropy and find that for parameters ...

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  • Measurement of electrical conductivity under

    2018-5-25 · Important types of lattice structures. Important lattice structures are the face-centered cubic (fcc), the body-centered cubic (bcc), and the hexagonal closest packed (hcp). 1 Introduction. 2 Body-centered cubic lattice structure. 3 Hexagonal closest packed lattice structure. 4 Face-centered cubic lattice structure.

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  • Material Safety Data for: Ferric Chloride,

    2015-8-24 · Material Safety Data for: Ferric Chloride, 40% solution 1. PRODUCT INDENTIFICATION Name iron trichloride Synonyms iron (III) chloride, ferric chloride CAS# 7705-08-0 EC# 231-729-4 Product Uses - 2. INGREDIENTS % TWAEV TLV mg/m3 LD50 ORAL (mg/kg) SKIN LC50 ppm INHALATION Ferric Chloride 37-42% 1 (as Fe) 440* not known not known

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  • TITRIMETRIC ANALYSIS OF CHLORIDE

    2009-5-12 · 2. The ferric ion, Fe3+ (the Volhard method); 3. Adsorption indicators such as fluorescein (the Fajans method). In this experiment, we will be using dichlorofluorescein, a Fajans (adsorption) indicator, to detect the endpoint chemically; however, it is useful to briefly describe all three methods of endpoint detection. Titrimetric Analysis ...

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  • Dielectric Properties, AC Conductivity, and Electric ...

    2020-1-30 · A strong dependence and correlation between the nature of the material structure and the dielectric properties are found, and therefore, we investigate our copolymer structure using X-ray diffraction technique as an initial step, allowing us to obtain insight into the morphology of the material.

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  • LITHIUM EXTRACTION FROM BRINE WITH ION

    2019-7-20 · accelerating demand. Here, two types of adsorbent, ion exchange (IX) resin and heterosite ferric phosphate (FP), were studied in order to extract lithium selectively from brine rapidly. First, more than thirty IX resins were tested in lithium chloride solution. Out of the thirty, sulfonate,

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  • Effects of chloride ions on corrosion of ductile iron

    2017-7-31 · Chloride is reported to play a significant role in corrosion reactions, products and kinetics of ferrous metals. To enhance the understanding of the effects of soil environments, especially the ...

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  • Functional Hydrogels and Their Application in Drug ...

    2019-10-3 · 2. Main Types of Hydrogels 2.1. Conductive Hydrogels. Conductive hydrogel (CH) is a new effective material which has the similar unique proper-ties to traditional hydrogels and an additional benefit in elec-trical conductivity [21–23]. It was first proposed by Gilmore et al. [24], and in recent years, more attention has been given

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  • Microscopic origins of conductivity in molten salts ...

    2021-1-27 · Conductivity vs. Li + mobility (a, b) and vs. Li + number density (c, d). a, c At different temperatures for LiF-LiCl-LiI eut (623, 723, 773, 1000, and 1200 K) and for LiF-LiCl-LiI 400/450 (773 ...

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  • Durability Evaluation of Concrete with

    2021-6-15 · According to the climatic characteristics of seasonal frozen area in northeast China, the concrete strength tests, surface resistivity, rapid chloride permeability, and freeze-thaw test under salt solution were carried out to study the influences of mineral admixtures and air content on the conventional properties and salt freeze-thaw resistance of concretes. Then, the correlation analysis of ...

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  • Permeability of Concrete and Correlation with ...

    2020-5-14 · Water and gas permeability coefficients of concrete with different water-binder (w/b) ratios and admixtures were measured by a self-designed test device based on the steady-state flow method for liquid and the method of differential pressure in stability for gas, respectively. In addition, the micropore structure of concrete was determined by >1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR).

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  • StandardT est Methodsfor DetectingDetrimental ...

    7.3 Test Method C—The ferric chloride corrosion test is a 24-h test in 10 % ferric chloride. It will detect a loss of corrosion resistance associated with local depletion of chro-mium and molybdenum as a result of the precipitation of chromium-rich and possibly molybdenum-rich phases, not limited to intermetallic phases. An Affected Structure ...

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  • Aluminum chloride | AlCl3 - PubChem

    2019-3-22 · Finally, the dried solids were added to a flask followed by 50 mL deionized water and ferric chloride and ferrous chloride solutions (mFe3+:mFe2+ = 2:1, mCF. COOH:mFe 3O 4 = 2:1). After 24 h, sodium hydroxide was added, and the flask was kept in a water bath at 80 °C until large amounts of precipitates formed.

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  • Improved Performance of Graphene in Heat Dissipation

    During wetting and drying cycles, the chloride ions in external solution will also react with the hydration products like calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) or AFm in the process of entering matrix and form some bound chlorides [26–31].The forming of bound chloride is a constant course, and its total content will increase with chloride ...

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  • Influence of Pore Structure on Chloride Penetration in ...

    2020-1-30 · A strong dependence and correlation between the nature of the material structure and the dielectric properties are found, and therefore, we investigate our copolymer structure using X-ray diffraction technique as an initial step, allowing us to obtain insight into the morphology of the material.

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  • Dielectric Properties, AC Conductivity, and Electric ...

    2020-5-14 · Water and gas permeability coefficients of concrete with different water-binder (w/b) ratios and admixtures were measured by a self-designed test device based on the steady-state flow method for liquid and the method of differential pressure in stability for gas, respectively. In addition, the micropore structure of concrete was determined by >1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR).

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  • Permeability of Concrete and Correlation with ...

    Pearson analysis showed a strong correlation among 1-methylnaphthalene, 2-methylnaphthalene, 1,3-dinitronaphthalene, and 1,4-dinitronaphthalene (p<0.01). Caohai, the north lakeshore of Waihai and the south of Waihai showed higher risk because of high concentration; meanwhile, 1,4-dichlorobenzene, 3- or 4-methylphenol and 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene were more likely to cause risks.

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  • Microbial Community Structure and Arsenic

    2016-1-13 · Arsenic biogeochemistry has been studied extensively in acid sulfate-chloride hot springs, but not in acid sulfate hot springs with low chloride. In this study, Zhenzhuquan in Tengchong geothermal area, a representative acid sulfate hot spring with low chloride, was chosen to study arsenic geochemistry and microbial community structure using Illumina MiSeq sequencing. Over 0.3 million 16S rRNA ...

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  • A Comprehensive Method of Ion Exchange Resins

    2020-8-12 · Ion exchange membranes, specifically resin technology, lie at the heart of electrolytically conductive systems used in the treatment of wastewater. This chapter deals with ion exchange deionization and the effect of resin amount as well as the concentration of acid and base on the product conductivity. The strong acidic cation polymeric exchanger resin is commercially called MERCK …

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